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Acid-Base Homeostasis In The Body

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May 21, 2018

The maintenance of a stable H+ concentration in all body fluids is essential for life. The H+ concentration, or pH is always maintained such that enzymatic activity and protein structure are at maximum efficiency {pH is the negative log of H+ concentration, pH = -log10[H+]} The disruption of this balance could cause severe complications. For… Read More ›

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured… Read More ›

Brainstem Infarction

This causes complex signs depending on the relationship of the infarct to cranial nerve nuclei, long tracts and brainstem connections. The lateral medullary syndrome The medial medullary syndrome Pontine hemorrhage Pseudobulbar palsy   Features of Brainstem Infarction Clinical feature Structure involved Hemiparesis or tetraparesis Corticospinal tracts Sensory loss Medial lemniscus and spinothalamic tracts Diplopia Oculomotor… Read More ›

History Taking – Overview

Free medical revision on history taking skills for medical student exams, finals, OSCEs and MRCP PACES Introduction (WIIPP) Wash your hands Introduce yourself: give your name and your job (e.g. Dr. Louise Gooch, ward doctor) Identity: confirm you’re speaking to the correct patient (name and date of birth) Permission: confirm the reason for seeing the patient… Read More ›

Normal ECG – Rate, Rhythm, Cardiac Axis, and Normal Waves & Intervals in an ECG

This article discusses the rate, rhythm, cardiac axis, and normal waves & intervals in an ECG. Normal Waves in ECG P wave It is a small upward deflection representing atrial depolarization. It should be upright in leads I, II, aVF, and V2-V6 and inverted in aVR. P wave is normally upright, biphasic, flat, or inverted… Read More ›

Homeostasis and the Body Systems

Since all tissues and organs contribute to maintain homeostasis, all organ systems are directly or indirectly playing a role. Nervous system Working as the body’s primary control center, this control the activities of almost every other organ in the body. Autonomous nervous system stimulates/inhibits secretions from the hypothalamus It controls contractions of skeletal and erector… Read More ›

Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

What is erectile dysfunction (ED)? Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to get or keep an erection firm enough to have sexual intercourse. It’s also sometimes referred to as impotence. Occasional ED isn’t uncommon. Many men experience it during times of stress. Frequent ED can be a sign of health problems that need treatment. It… Read More ›

Baroreceptor Mechanism

Arterial blood pressure is normally regulated within a narrow range, with a mean arterial pressure typically ranging from 85 to 100 mmHg in adults. It is important to tightly control this pressure to ensure adequate blood flow to organs throughout the body. This is accomplished by negative feedback systems incorporating pressure sensors (i.e., baroreceptors) that… Read More ›

Human Physiology and Homeostasis

Human physiology is the branch of biological science that explains the specific characteristics and mechanisms of our body that help it to function as a living organism. Homeostasis is the process by which the body maintains its internal environment at optimum conditions to function as a living being Homeostasis: maintenance of near-constant internal conditions in… Read More ›

Bell’s Palsy vs. Stroke

The nerve effects of Bell’s palsy are peripheral, while in a stroke, the nerve effect is central. As you can see in the figure, motor innervation in the forehead comes from both cerebral cortex hemispheres. A stroke with symptoms of facial paralysis would show drooping only in the lower part of the face, as the… Read More ›

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