Medical Education Without Limits!

Mnemonics – An easiest way to memorize everything

Cardiovascular Mnemonics

  • Complications of myocardial infarction (DARTH VADER)

    • Death
    • Arrhythmia
    • Rupture (free ventricular wall/ ventricular septum/ papillary muscles)
    • Tamponade
    • Heart failure (acute or chronic)
    • Valve disease
    • Aneurysm of ventricle
    • Dressler’s syndrome
    • thromboEmbolism (mural thrombus)
    • Recurrence/ mitral Regurgitation
  • Beck’s triad of acute cardiac tamponade (3 D’s)

    • Distant heart sounds
    • Decreased arterial BP
    • Distended neck veins

Respiratory Mnemonics

  • Causes of upper zone pulmonary fibrosis (A TEA SHOP)

    • ABPA
    • TB
    • Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
    • Ankylosing Spondylitis
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Histiocytosis
    • Occupational (silicosis, berylliosis)
    • Pneumoconiosis (coal-worker’s)

    Aspiration of foreign body (which bronchus is more vertical)

    • Inhale a bite, goes down right

    Features of a life-threatening asthma attack (A CHEST)

    • Arrhythmia/ Altered conscious level
    • Cyanosis, PaCO2 normal
    • Hypotension, Hypoxia (PaO2<8kPa, SpO2 <92%)
    • Exhaustion
    • Silent chest
    • Threatening PEF < 33% best or predicted (in those >5yrs old)

Gastroenterology Mnemonics

  • Causes of Vomiting (VOMITING)

    • Vestibular/ Vagal reflex (pain)
    • Opiates
    • Migraine/ Metabolic e.g. DKA
    • Infection
    • Toxicity (cytotoxic, digoxin)
    • Increased ICP/ Ingested alcohol
    • Neurogenic
    • GI/ Gestation

Hepatology Mnemonics

  • Signs of chronic liver disease (ABCDEFGHIJ)

    • Asterixis, Ascites, Ankle oedema, Atrophy of testicles
    • Bruising
    • Clubbing/ Colour change of nails (leuconychia)
    • Dupuytren’s contracture
    • Encephalopathy / palmar Erythema
    • Foetor hepaticus
    • Gynaecomastia
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Increase size of parotids
    • Jaundice
  • Complications of hereditary haemochromatosis (HaemoChromatosis Can Cause Deposits Anywhere)

    • Hypogonadism
    • Cancer (hepatocellular)
    • Cirrhosis
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Arthropathy

Neurology Mnemonics

  • Cerebellar signs (DANISH)

    • Dysdiadochokinesia/ Dysmetria
    • Ataxia
    • Nystagmus (horizontal)
    • Intention tremor
    • Slurred speech
    • Hypotonia

 

  • Causes of Pinpoint pupils

    • Pinpoint Pupils are caused by oPioids and Pontine Pathology

 

  • Diagnostic criteria of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (CAFÉ SPOT)

    • Café au lait spots
    • Axillary + inguinal freckling
    • Fibromas
    • Eye: Lisch nodules
    • Sphenoid dysplasia
    • Positive family history
    • Optic Tumour (glioma)

 

  • Features of normal pressure hydrocephalus (Wet, Wobbly, Wacky)

    • Wet = urinary incontinence
    • Wobbly = ataxic gait
    • Wacky = dementia

Endocrinology Mnemonics

  • Pheochromocytoma (rule of 10’s)

    • 10% extra-abdominal
    • 10% malignant
    • 10% bilateral
    • 10% in children
    • BUT 30% genetic/syndromic!

 

  •  Insulinoma (rule of 10’s)

    •  10% are part of MEN1 syndrome
    • 10% are multiple
    • 10% are malignant
    • 10% contain ectopic pancreatic tissue

 

  •  Symptoms of hyperthyroidism (SWEATING)

    •  Sweating
    • Weight loss
    • Emotional lability
    • Appetite increased
    • Tremor/ tachycardia
    • Intolerance of heat/ Irregular menstruation/ Irritability
    • Nervousness
    • Goitre and GI problems (diarrhoea)

 

  •  Symptoms of hypothyroidism – tends to occur in middle aged women (MOM’S SO TIRED)

    •  Memory loss
    • Obesity
    • Malar flush/ Menorrhagia
    • Slowness (mentally and physically)
    • Skin and hair dryness
    • Onset gradual
    • Tiredness
    • Intolerance to cold
    • Raised BP
    • Energy levels fall
    • Depression/ Delayed relaxation of reflexes

 

  •  Causes of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON)

    •  Autoimmune (Addison’s disease)
    • Degenerative (amyloidosis)
    • Drugs (e.g. ketoconazole)
    • Infections (e.g. TB, HIV)
    • Secondary (hypopituitarism)
    • Others (adrenal bleeding)
    • Neoplasia

Haematology Mnemonics

  • Folate deficiency causes (A FOLIC DROP)

    •  Alcoholism
    • Folic acid antagonists
    • OCP
    • Low dietary intake
    • Infection (giardiasis)
    • Coeliac disease
    • Dilantin (phenytoin)
    • Relative folate deficiency
    • Old
    • Pregnancy

 

  •  Causes of thrombocytopenia (PLATELETS)

    •  Platelet disorders (DIC, TTP, ITP)
    • Leukaemia
    • Anaemia
    • Trauma
    • Enlarged spleen
    • Liver disease
    • Ethanol
    • Toxins e.g. heparin, aspirin, chemotherapy, benzene
    • Sepsis

 

Rheumatology Mnemonics

  • Shared features of limited and systemic scleroderma (CREST)

    • Calcinosis
    • Raynaud’s phenomenon
    • Esophageal dysmotility
    • Sclerodactyly
    • Telangectasia

 

  • Types of psoriatic arthritis (DRAMA)

    •  Distal interphalangeal
    • Rheumatoid-like
    • Asymmetrical oligoarticular/pauciarticular
    • Mutilans
    • Ankylosing-spondylitis-like

 

  •  Sarcoid systemic features (FILLED BAGEL)

    •  Facial nerve palsy
    • Infiltrations of lung parenchyma/ pulmonary Insufficiency
    • Lymphadenopathy (hilar)
    • Liver + spleen enlargement
    • Elevated Ace and Ca2+
    • Dilated cardiomyopathy
    • Bone cysts
    • Arthralgia
    • Granulomata of skin
    • Erythema nodosum
    • Lupus pernio

 

Emergency Medicine Mnemonics

  • Reversible causes of cardiac arrest (6H’s and 4T’s)

    • Hypovolaemia
    • Hypoxia
    • H+ (acidosis)
    • Hypothermia
    • Hypoglycaemia
    • Hypokalaemia
    • Hyperkalaemia
    • Tension pneumothorax
    • cardiac Tamponade
    • Thrombosis (PE/MI)
    • Toxins

 

  •  DKA precipitants (5 I’s)

    •  Infection
    • Ischaemia (cardiac, mesenteric)
    • Infarction
    • Ignorance (poor control)
    • Intoxication (alcohol)

 

Clinical (general) Mnemonics

  • For any disease (Dressed In a Surgeon’s Gown A Physician Might Make Some Significant Progress)

    • Definition
    • Incidence
    • Sex
    • Geography
    • Aetiology
    • Pathogenesis
    • Macroscopic pathology
    • Microscopic pathology
    • Symptoms
    • Signs
    • Prognosis

 

  • Surgical Sieve (INVITED MDC)

    • Infection
    • Neoplasia
    • Vascular
    • Inflammatory/autoimmune
    • Trauma
    • Endocrine
    • Degenerative
    • Metabolic
    • Drugs
    • Congenital

 

  • Systems (MUNCHEBARS)

    • Musculoskeletal
    • Urinary
    • Neurological
    • Cardiovascular
    • Hepatic
    • Endocrine
    • Blood
    • Alimentary
    • Respiratory
    • Skin

 

  • Pain (SOCRATES)

    • Site
    • Onset
    • Character
    • Radiation
    • Associated symptoms
    • Timing
    • Exacerbating/ relieving factors
    • Severity (/10)

 

Assessment (When seeing any acutely unwell patient)

A Airway Check patency, adjuncts, give oxygen
B Breathing Check for air entry and pneumothorax
C Circulation Insert IV lines, take bloods and gas, give fluids
D Disability Check GCS and glucose
E Exposure Check temperature and do full exam
F Fluids Have you given a fluid challenge. Consider catheter
G Gas Have you checked an ABG or VBG? When do you need to repeat this?
H Haematology Have you sent all the bloods you need?
I Imaging Have you ordered a CXR and looked at the most recent imaging? Is there anything else you need: USS or CT?
J Jobs (nursing) Have you allocated jobs appropriately to nurses (e.g. ECG or urine dip)
K EKG (ECG) Have you looked at the ECG (and compared it to previous)?
L Location Is the patient in the right place? Do they need to be moved to HDU or ICU?
M Monitoring How often would you like monitoring? Do they need neuro-obs?
N Next of kin Has anyone informed the NoK? If not do you need to?
O Oh, shit Stop and think. Are you OK? Do you need help?
P Plan Have you documented your plan and informed the nursing staff?
Q Questions Finally, does the patient have any questions about what’s happened?
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